 Author:
 DAWNE COKER
 Subject:
 Mathematics
 Material Type:
 Activity/Lab, Lesson, Lesson Plan
 Level:
 Lower Primary
 Tags:
 License:
 Creative Commons Attribution
 Language:
 English
 Media Formats:
 Downloadable docs
Education Standards
T4T Addie's Tower
Overview
This resource is from Tools4NCTeachers.
The goals of this lesson are to a) use objects or drawings to find the number that makes 10 when added to a known number, and b) record answers using drawings or expressions.
Remix this lesson to share addtional problems, extension ideas, or student work samples.
Here is an excerpt from the lesson. To view the entire fullyformatted lesson and materials, click the attachment.
Addie’s Tower
The goals of this lesson are to a) use objects or drawings to find the number that makes 10 when added to a known number, and b) record answers using drawings or expressions.

NC Mathematics Standards:
Understand Addition and Subtraction.
NC.K.OA.4 For any number from 0 to 10, find the number that makes 10 when added to the given number using objects or drawings, and record the answer with a drawing or expression.
Standards for Mathematical Practice:
2. Reason abstractly and quantitatively.
4. Model with mathematics
5. Use appropriate tools strategically
7. Look for and make use of structure
8. Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning.
Student Outcomes:
 I can find the missing number to make ten.
 I can make (compose) ten using objects or drawings.
 I can record my mathematical thinking using drawings or expressions
Math Language:
 Set/group
 Total
 Compose* (put together)
 Decompose* (break apart)
 Expression*
*Teacher models vocabulary, but students are not expected to master at this time.
Materials:
 A variety of manipulatives (e.g., snap cubes, twocolor counters, pennies, ten frames)
 Math journal or paper and pencil for recording student work
 Student copies of Addie’s Tower picture on page 5
Advance Preparation:
 Decide how to display task for class (e.g., print task and display on document reader, use projector to display from computer)
 Gather needed manipulatives and recording materials
 Decide whether students will complete the task independently or with partners. If using preselected heterogenous pairs are suggested.
Launch:
 Activate prior knowledge related to the problem.
 Ask: Have you ever built a tower? How did you build it? What did it look like? Talk with your partner about a time you’ve built a tower.
 Show Addie’s Tower picture to class.
 Say: Addie wants to build a tower. What do you notice about the picture?
 Have students share their thinking with a partner.
 Call on a few students to share their thinking with the whole group.
 If students do not notice the amount of blocks, ask: How many blocks are there?
 Read task: Addie wants her tower to be 10 blocks tall. What does she need to do to finish building her tower? (Answer: Addie needs to stack the 4 blocks, and stack 6 extra blocks.)
 To ensure understanding, call on students to repeat the task in their own words.
 Say: On your table, there are materials you can use to solve the problem. Mathematicians pick the best tools for solving problems. Choose the materials you think will work best.
 Say: Complete this task with a partner (or alone). Mathematicians show their thinking so record your thinking in your math journal (or on a piece of paper).
Explore:
 Allow 810 minutes for students to work towards a solution. This exploration time is useful for observing and collecting formative data on students’ current level of understanding.
 As students grapple, ask individuals questions to elicit thinking (see chart).
 If the class shows is unproductive or shows frustration, pull students back together. Redirect the entire class by asking questions to elicit thinking.
Observation  Questions to Ask 
Student is unable to start task. 

Student puts objects on table, but is unsure how to proceed. 

Student adds 10 additional blocks to Addie’s set rather than adding on to the 4 blocks already there. 

Student uses objects to solve. 

Student uses drawings to solve. 

Student uses counting on to solve. (starts at 4 and counts on to 10, keeping track using fingers) 

Student uses a known fact to solve. 

Student accurately and easily solves the problem using a single strategy.  Ask questions to support students in using an new strategy:

 As students work, select who will share their strategies during the “Discuss” section of the lesson. Decide a sequence in which they will share. A suggested sequence for sharing:
 Modeling with objects
 Creating a drawing
 Counting On
 Known Fact
Discuss:
 Bring students together share solutions (e.g., on carpet).
 Select a student to reinstate the task in his/her own words.
 Have students share solutions with partners so they feel their strategies are valued.
 Have preselected students share. This is chance to highlight the math and misconceptions related to today’s goal of making ten. The focus in sharing will also be on advancing students toward using more sophisticated strategies.
 Have the student who used objects share.
 Ask student: How did you solve the problem?
 Ask student: How does your work with objects match our problem?
 To promote active listening, ask students to repeat the strategy they just heard. Ask class: ______ can you share how ______ solved this problem?
 Have the student who used drawings share.
 Ask student: How did you solve the problem?
 Ask student: How does your drawing match today’s problem?
 Ask class: _____ can you share how _____ solved this problem using drawings? (This is an opportunity to get a student who is reluctant to move towards using drawings to verbalize the strategy you’d like to see them use in future lessons.)
 Ask class: How is _____’s strategy of using objects related to ______’s drawing?
 Have the student who used counting on share.
 Ask student: How did you solve the problem?
 Ask student: What number did you start with? Why did you choose that number?
 Ask student: How did you keep track of the blocks you added as you counted?
 Encourage students to repeat the strategy they just heard: ______ can you share how _____ solved this problem using a counting on strategy?
 Ask the class: How is _____’s counting strategy related to _____’s drawing?
 Have the student who used a known fact share.
 Ask student: How did you solve the problem?
 Ask student: How does your fact match our problem? How did you use this fact to find the amount of blocks Addie needed to finish the tower?
 Ask: ____ can you share how _____ solved this problem using an expression?
 Close by focusing on the lesson goals:
 Say: Today we composed 10 using a variety of strategies. What are some strategies our class used?
 Say: Mathematicians record their thinking so others can understand their strategies. What were ways classmates recorded their thinking? (e.g., drawings, expressions)
 Ask: Next time you solve a making ten problem, which strategy do you feel will work best for you? Why?
Evaluation of Student Understanding:
Informal Evaluation:
 Observe strategies used to solve the problem. Kindergartners are expected to use objects or drawings to find the number that makes 10 when added to the given number.
 Observe ways students recorded their thinking. Kindergartners are expected to record answers a drawing or expression.
Meeting the Needs of the Range of Learners:
Interventions:
 Students who struggle to count and make ten would benefit from additional work with the ten frame. Play Ten Frame Games by NRICH Math or Ten Frame Mania by Greg Tang.
 Students who need additional practice could solve similar problems in a guided math group:
 Addie has 5 blocks, how many more does she need to make a tower of 10?
 Ronald has 3 stickers. He needs 10 stickers to go to the treasure box. How many more stickers does Ronald need to make 10?
 Josie has found 5 leaves. She needs to bring 10 leaves to class tomorrow for science. How many more leaves does Josie need to find?
Extensions:
 Students can practice making ten throughout the school day. Here are some examples:
 Lining up for the bathroom – There are 3 girls on the wall, how many more girls would we need to make 10?
 Getting water – There are 6 kids at the water fountain, how many more kids are needed to make 10?
 Playing on the playground – There are 4 kids on the monkey bars. How many more kids are needed to make 10?
 Students who are working towards fluency with making ten and no longer need objects or drawings could use this game from Math Playground: Number Bonds – 10.