In this activity, students investigate the concept that air takes up space by experimenting with a tub full of water and an empty cup. Students turn the cup upside down and lower it into the water so that they can observe what happens. Students also try this with a crushed paper towel inside the cup to illustrate that the air prevents water from entering the cup.
Students will be able to explain, on the molecular level, how a gas dissolves in water. They will also be able to explain why the gas comes out of solution faster in warm water than in cold water.
Students will place isopropyl alcohol, mineral oil and corn syrup in water to see if any of these liquids dissolve in water. Students will extend their understanding and definition of "dissolving" and see that certain, but not all liquids can dissolve in water.
This resource is an animation that accompanies the lesson plan, "Changing State - Condensation."
This resource is an image of the water cylce that accompanies the lesson plan, "Changing State - Condensation."
Students will be able to identify and control variables to design a test to see if heating water affects the rate of evaporation. Students will be able to explain, on the molecular level, why adding energy increases the rate of evaporation.
This resource is an animation that accompanies the lesson plan, "Changing State - Evaporation."
This resource is an animation on the different angles of ice that accompanies the lesson plan, "Changing State - Freezing."
Students will mix ice and salt in a metal can to make it very cold. They will see the liquid water and ice form on the outside of the can. Students will watch an animation of water molecules arranged as ice.
This resource is a video that demonstrates the effects on various objects when they are placed in liquid nitrogen. The video accompanies the lesson plan, "Changing State - Freezing."
This resource is a video that shows the difference in melting rates between a regular ice cube and a piece of dry ice. The video accompanies the lesson plan, "Changing State: Melting."
This resource is a video that compares the reaction when dry ice is placed in cold versus hot water. The video accompanies the lesson plan, "Changing State: Melting."
This resource is a video that shows what happens when a piece of dry ice is placed in water. The video accompanies the lesson plan, "Changing State: Melting."
This resource is a video that compares the rate of melting when ice cubes are placed on aluminum and foam surfaces. The video accompanies the lesson plan, "Changing State: Melting."
Students will see a small piece of ice melt on an aluminum surface. Students will explain the energy transfer and molecular motion which cause the change in state from a solid to a liquid.
Students will analyze the chemical equation for the reaction between vinegar and baking soda. They will make the connection between the written chemical equation, the molecular model and the real substances in the chemical reaction. Students will see that the gas produced in the actual reaction is also written in the products of the equation. Students will also change the amount of one or more reactants and see how the change affects the amount of products. Included with, and linked into, this lesson plan are a student activity sheet, a reactants image, a products image, an image showing mass is conserved, a Controlling the Amount of Products formed image as well as an answer key for the student activity sheet.
Students measure the volume and mass of water to determine its density. Then they measure the mass of different volumes of water and discover that the density is always the same. Students make a graph of the relationship between the volume and the mass of water.
Students will explore solubility by designing an experiment to see if temperature affects the amount of dissolving of the sugar coating of an M&M candy. Students will also examine and compare solubility graphs for salt, sugar, and potassium chloride. At the end of the activity, students should be able to explain, on the molecular level, why increasing temperature increases the rate of dissolving. Supplemental student reading material is also provided as part of this lesson.
In this interactive lesson, students will conduct two chemical reactions. In the first, the temperature will go down (endothermic) and in the second, the temperature will go up (exothermic). Students will view an animation to review the concept that it takes energy to break bonds and that energy is released when new bonds are formed. Students will use this idea to explain why a reaction is either endothermic or exothermic. Linked into this lesson is a student activity sheet, a video on thermite reaction, a video on Nitrogen triodide reaction, a White Phosphorus Reaction video, a Methane Combustion Energy animation, an image showing a baking soda and calcium chloride reaction, an image showing a baking soda and vinegar reaction, both an endothermic and exothermic reaction animation as well as an answer sheet for the student activity sheet and teacher background information on exothermic and endothermic chemical reactions.
Students classify chemical reactions as exothermic or endothermic. Next, students explore the relationship between an observed change in temperature and the classification of a change as chemical or physical. Students will explore energy changes during chemical reactions, heat of reaction, and the connection between energy changes and chemical changes.
Students will explore the definition of energy by making careful observations about simple toys that illustrate basic principles of energy.
Students use the water displacement method to find the volume of different rods that all have the same mass. They calculate the density of each rod and use the characteristic density of each material to idenfity all 5 rods.
Students will do a hand-on experiment to create a precipiate and analyze chemical equations to see that all atoms in the reactants end up in the products.
Students complete an activity in which heat is transferred from hot water to metal washers and then from hot metal washers to water.
This resource is a video that accompanies the lesson plan, "Heat, Temperature and Conduction."
This resource will help students understand the chemistry and gain insight into the history featured in the development of baking powder. It includes a reading resource, a mapping activity, and a flow chart activity. Student identify chemical substances, name common ions and molecules, write balanced formulas, and interpret the chemical reaction in baking powder.
This resource includes a handout and activities that will help students understand the advances of Norbert Rillieux, an African American inventor who harnessed thermodynamics principles to invent the multiple-effect evaporator. It asks students to read articles followed by reading comprehension questions, answer questions about thermodynamics and latent heat, and explore engineering practices.