Students analyze the data they have collected to answer their question for …

Students analyze the data they have collected to answer their question for the unit project. They will also complete a short Self Check.Students are given class time to work on their projects. Students should use the time to analyze their data, finding the different measures and/or graphing their data. If necessary, students may choose to use the time to collect data. Students also complete a short pre-assessment (Self Check problem).Key ConceptsStudents will look at all of the tools that they have to analyze data. These include:Graphic representations: line plots, box plots, and histogramsMeasures of center and spread: mean, median, mode, range, and the five-number summaryStudents will use these tools to work on their project and to complete an assessment exercise.Goals and Learning ObjectivesComplete the project, or progress far enough to complete it outside of class.Review measures of center and spread and the three types of graphs explored in the unit.Check knowledge of box plots and measures of center and spread.

In this lesson, students are given criteria about measures of center, and …

In this lesson, students are given criteria about measures of center, and they must create line plots for data that meet the criteria. Students also explore the effect on the median and the mean when values are added to a data set.Students use a tool that shows a line plot where measures of center are shown. Students manipulate the graph and observe how the measures are affected. Students explore how well each measure describes the data and discover that the mean is affected more by extreme values than the mode or median. The mathematical definitions for measures of center and spread are formalized.Key ConceptsStudents use the Line Plot with Stats interactive to develop a greater understanding of the measures of center. Here are a few of the things students may discover:The mean and the median do not have to be data points.The mean is affected by extreme values, while the median is not.Adding values above the mean increases the mean. Adding values below the mean decreases the mean.You can add values above and below the mean without changing the mean, as long as those points are “balanced.”Adding values above the median may or may not increase the median. Adding values below the median may or may not decrease the median.Adding equal numbers of points above and below the median does not change the median.The measures of center can be related in any number of ways. For example, the mean can be greater than the median, the median can be greater than the mean, and the mode can be greater than or less than either of these measures.Note: In other courses, students will learn that a set of data may have more than one mode. That will not be the case in this lesson.Goals and Learning ObjectivesExplore how changing the data in a line plot affects the measures of center (mean, median).Understand that the mean is affected by outliers more than the median is.Create line plots that fit criteria for given measures of center.

Ratios Type of Unit: Concept Prior Knowledge Students should be able to: …

Ratios

Type of Unit: Concept

Prior Knowledge

Students should be able to:

Calculate with whole numbers up to 100 using all four operations. Understand fraction notation and percents and translate among fractions, decimal numbers, and percents. Interpret and use a number line. Use tables to solve problems. Use tape diagrams to solve problems. Sketch and interpret graphs. Write and interpret equations.

Lesson Flow

The first part of the unit begins with an exploration activity that focuses on a ratio as a way to compare the amount of egg and the amount of flour in a mixture. The context motivates a specific understanding of the use of, and need for, ratios as a way of making comparisons between quantities. Following this lesson, the usefulness of ratios in comparing quantities is developed in more detail, including a contrast to using subtraction to find differences. Students learn to interpret and express ratios as fractions, as decimal numbers, in a:b form, in words, and as data; they also learn to identify equivalent ratios.

The focus of the middle part of the unit is on the tools used to represent ratio relationships and on simplifying and comparing ratios. Students learn to use tape diagrams first, then double number lines, and finally ratio tables and graphs. As these tools are introduced, students use them in problem-solving contexts to solve ratio problems, including an investigation of glide ratios. Students are asked to make connections and distinctions among these forms of representation throughout these lessons. Students also choose a ratio project in this part of the unit (Lesson 8).

The third and last part of the unit covers understanding percents, including those greater than 100%.

Students have ample opportunities to check, deepen, and apply their understanding of ratios, including percents, with the selection of problems in the Gallery.

Samples and ProbabilityType of Unit: ConceptualPrior KnowledgeStudents should be able to:Understand the …

Samples and ProbabilityType of Unit: ConceptualPrior KnowledgeStudents should be able to:Understand the concept of a ratio.Write ratios as percents.Describe data using measures of center.Display and interpret data in dot plots, histograms, and box plots.Lesson FlowStudents begin to think about probability by considering the relative likelihood of familiar events on the continuum between impossible and certain. Students begin to formalize this understanding of probability. They are introduced to the concept of probability as a measure of likelihood, and how to calculate probability of equally likely events using a ratio. The terms (impossible, certain, etc.) are given numerical values. Next, students compare expected results to actual results by calculating the probability of an event and conducting an experiment. Students explore the probability of outcomes that are not equally likely. They collect data to estimate the experimental probabilities. They use ratio and proportion to predict results for a large number of trials. Students learn about compound events. They use tree diagrams, tables, and systematic lists as tools to find the sample space. They determine the theoretical probability of first independent, and then dependent events. In Lesson 10 students identify a question to investigate for a unit project and submit a proposal. They then complete a Self Check. In Lesson 11, students review the results of the Self Check, solve a related problem, and take a Quiz.Students are introduced to the concept of sampling as a method of determining characteristics of a population. They consider how a sample can be random or biased, and think about methods for randomly sampling a population to ensure that it is representative. In Lesson 13, students collect and analyze data for their unit project. Students begin to apply their knowledge of statistics learned in sixth grade. They determine the typical class score from a sample of the population, and reason about the representativeness of the sample. Then, students begin to develop intuition about appropriate sample size by conducting an experiment. They compare different sample sizes, and decide whether increasing the sample size improves the results. In Lesson 16 and Lesson 17, students compare two data sets using any tools they wish. Students will be reminded of Mean Average Deviation (MAD), which will be a useful tool in this situation. Students complete another Self Check, review the results of their Self Check, and solve additional problems. The unit ends with three days for students to work on Gallery problems, possibly using one of the days to complete their project or get help on their project if needed, two days for students to present their unit projects to the class, and one day for the End of Unit Assessment.

Students begin to formalize their understanding of probability. They are introduced to …

Students begin to formalize their understanding of probability. They are introduced to the concept of probability as a measure of likelihood and how to calculate probability as a ratio. The terms discussed (impossible, certain, etc.) in Lesson 1 are given numerical values.Key ConceptsStudents will think of probability as a ratio; it can be written as a fraction, decimal, or a percent ranging from 0 to 1.Students will think about ratio and proportion to predict results.Goals and Learning ObjectivesDefine probability as a measure of likelihood and the ratio of favorable outcomes to the total number of outcomes for an event.Predict results based on theoretical probability using ratio and proportion.

Students collect and analyze data for their unit project.Students are given class …

Students collect and analyze data for their unit project.Students are given class time to work on their project. Some students may choose to use the time to collect data (if their project is an experiment based on experimental probability), while others will use the tools (spinners, coin toss, number cube, etc.) to collect their data. Students should use the time to analyze their data, finding the theoretical (if possible) probability and comparing it to the experimental results.Key ConceptsStudents will apply what they have learned about probability to work on their project, including likelihood of events, determining theoretical and experimental probability, comparing results to calculations, and using simulations to establish probability.Students may also use data analysis tools to discuss their results.Goals and Learning ObjectivesComplete the project, or progress far enough to complete it outside of class.Review concepts of probability (simple probability, compound events, experimental vs. theoretical probability, simulations).

Students estimate the length of 20 seconds by starting an unseen timer …

Students estimate the length of 20 seconds by starting an unseen timer and stopping it when they think 20 seconds has elapsed. They are shown the results and repeat the process two more times. The first and third times are recorded and compiled, producing two data sets to be compared. Students analyze the data to conclude whether or not their ability to estimate 20 seconds improves with practice.Key ConceptsMeasures of center and spreadLine plots, box plots, and histogramsMean absolute deviation (MAD)Goals and Learning ObjectivesApply knowledge of statistics to compare sets of data.Use measures of center and spread to analyze data.Decide which graph is appropriate for a given situation.

Students extend their understanding of compound events. They will compare experimental results …

Students extend their understanding of compound events. They will compare experimental results to predicted results by calculating the probability of an event, then conducting an experiment.Key ConceptsStudents apply their understanding of compound events to actual experiments.Students will see there is variability in actual results.Goals and Learning ObjectivesContinue to explore compound independent events.Compare theoretical probability to experimental probability.

Students begin learning about compound events by considering independent events. They will …

Students begin learning about compound events by considering independent events. They will consider everyday objects with known probabilities. Students will represent sample spaces using lists, tables, and tree diagrams in order to calculate the probability of certain events.Key ConceptsCompound events are introduced in this lesson, building upon what students have learned about determining sample space and probabilities of single events.Terms introduced are:multistage experiment: an experiment in which more than one action is performedcompound events: the combined results of multistage experimentsindependent events: compound events in which the outcome of one does not affect the outcome of the otherGoals and Learning ObjectivesLearn about compound events and sample spaces.Use different tools to find the sample space (tree diagrams, tables, lists) of a compound event.Use ratio and proportion to solve problems.SWD: Go over the mathematical language used throughout the module. Make sure students use that language when discussing problems in this lesson.

Students will apply their knowledge of statistics learned in sixth grade. They …

Students will apply their knowledge of statistics learned in sixth grade. They will determine the typical class score from a sample of the population, and reason about the representativeness of the sample.Students analyze test score data from a fictitious seventh grade class and make generalizations about district-wide results. They then compare the data to a second seventh grade class and reason about whether these are random samples. Students will review measures of center and spread as they find evidence to draw conclusions about the data.Key ConceptsSample size will be considered as it affects the conclusions of an analysis of a population.Students will review tools that they used in sixth grade to analyze data, such as measures of center and spread, and different types of graphs.Goals and Learning ObjectivesExplore sample size.Look at the effects of using a nonrandom sample.Review tools used to analyze data.

Lesson OverviewStudents will extend their understanding of probability by continuing to conduct …

Lesson OverviewStudents will extend their understanding of probability by continuing to conduct experiments, this time with four-colored spinners. They will compare experimental results to expected results by first conducting an experiment, then calculating the probability of an event.Key ConceptsThis lesson takes an informal look at the Law of Large Numbers, comparing experimental results to expected results.Goals and Learning ObjectivesLearn about experimental probability.Compare theoretical probability to experimental probability and show that experimental probability approaches theoretical probability with more trials.Use proportions to predict results for a number of trials.

Students will continue to apply their understanding of compound independent events. They …

Students will continue to apply their understanding of compound independent events. They will calculate probabilities and represent sample spaces with visual representations.Key ConceptsStudents continue to solve problems with compound events. The formula for calculating the probability of independent events is introduced:P(A and B) = P(A) ⋅ P(B)Goals and Learning ObjectivesDeepen understanding of compound events using lists, tables, and tree diagrams.Learn about the Fundamental Counting Principle.

Gallery OverviewAllow students who have a clear understanding of the content thus …

Gallery OverviewAllow students who have a clear understanding of the content thus far in the unit to work on Gallery problems of their choosing. You can then use this time to provide additional help to students who need review of the unit's concepts or to assist students who may have fallen behind on work.Chance of RainStudents are given the probability that it will rain on two different days and asked to find the chance that it will rain on one of the two days.PenguinsIn an Antarctic penguin colony, 200 penguins are tagged and released. A year later, 100 penguins are captured and 4 of them are tagged. Students determine how many penguins are in the colony.How Many Yellow?Given the total number of balls in a bag and the probability for two colors, students find the number of balls for the third color.How Many Ways to Line Up?Students decide how many different ways they five students can order themselves as they line up for class.Gumballs There are some white gumballs and red gumballs left in a machine. Students find the probability of getting at least one red gumball.New FamilyA married couple wants to have four children. Students find the probability that at least one child will be a girl.Nickel and DimeStudents find the probability for different outcomes when tossing two coins.Four More FlipsStudents determine how many more tails are likely if a coin has already landed on tails twice.Bubble GumThe letters G, U, or M are printed inside bubble gum wrappers in a ratio of 3:2:1. Students use a simulation to find out how much bubble gum to buy to get a 3:2:1 ratio.A Large FamilyIf a family wants to have six children, what is the probability that there will be three boys and three girls? Students use a simulation to model the probability.No TelephoneUsing census data from 1960 and 1990 in two box plots, students compare the percentages of families that had phones.Pulse RateStudents compare two data sets of different sizes: one for students and one for athletes.Golf ScoresStudents are given two sets of golf scores for Rosa and Chen. They are asked to decide who is the better golfer by constructing and comparing box plots.How Much Taller?Given two sets of data about heights, students determine how much taller one group is than the other.Coin Jar Students determine the contents of a coin jar by sampling.Project Work TimeStudents can choose to work on and complete their project or get help if needed.

Students continue to extend their understanding of compound events by comparing independent …

Students continue to extend their understanding of compound events by comparing independent and dependent events. This includes drawing the sample space to understand how the first event does or does not affect the second event. Students will solve problems with dependent compound events.Key ConceptsStudents will learn about the differences between dependent and independent events.Events are independent if the outcome of an event does not influence the outcome of the others.Events are dependent if the outcome of an event does influence the outcome of the others.The difference can be observed by drawing a diagram to represent the sample space. For dependent events, the sample space is smaller.Goals and Learning ObjectivesUnderstand the difference between independent and dependent compound events.Draw diagrams for dependent compound events.Solve compound event problems.

Students will compare expected results to actual results by first calculating the …

Students will compare expected results to actual results by first calculating the probability of an event, then conducting an experiment to generate data. They will use an interactive to simulate a familiar event—rolling a number cube. Students will also be introduced to terminology.Key ConceptsThis lesson takes an informal look at the Law of Large Numbers through comparing experimental results to expected results.There is variability in actual results.Probability terminology is introduced:theoretical probability: the ratio of favorable outcomes to the total number of possible equally-likely outcomes, often simply called probabilityexpected results: the results based on theoretical probabilityexperimental probability: the ratio of favorable outcomes to the total number of trials in an experimentactual results: the results based on experimental probabilityoutcome: a single possible resultsample space: the set of all possible outcomesexperiment: a controlled, repeated process, such as repeatedly tossing a cointrial: each repetition in an experiment, such as one coin tossevent: a set of outcomes to which a probability is assignedGoals and Learning ObjectivesPredict results using ratio and proportion.Compare expected results to actual results.Understand that the actual results get closer to the expected results as the number of trials increase.

Students will begin to think about probability by considering how likely it …

Students will begin to think about probability by considering how likely it is that their house will be struck by lightning. They will consider the relative likelihood of familiar events (e.g., outdoor temperature, test scores) on the continuum between impossible and certain. Students will discuss where on the continuum "likely," "unlikely," and "equally likely as unlikely" are.Key ConceptsAs students begin their study of probability, they look at the likelihood of events. Students have an intuitive sense of likelihood, even if no numbers or ratios are attached to the events. For example, there is clearly a better chance that a specific student will be chosen at random from a class than from the entire school.Goals and Learning ObjectivesThink about the concept of likelihood.Understand that probability is a measure of likelihood.Informally estimate the likelihood of certain events.Begin to think about why one event is more likely than another.SWD: Students with disabilities may need additional support seeing the relationships among problems and strategies. Throughout this unit, keep anchor charts available and visible to assist them in making connections and working toward mastery. Provide explicit think alouds comparing strategies and making connections. In addition, ask probing questions to get students to articulate how a peer solved the problem or how one strategy or visual representation is connected or related to another.

Students begin to develop intuition about appropriate sample size by conducting an …

Students begin to develop intuition about appropriate sample size by conducting an experiment. They compare different sample sizes and whether increasing the sample size improves the results.Key ConceptsSampling is a way to discover unknown characteristics about a population. The size of the sample is important in determining the accuracy of the results. Ratio and proportion are used to compare the sample to the population.Goals and Learning ObjectivesStudents will use sampling to determine the number of different color marbles in a jar.Students will explore sample size compared to population size.

Students are introduced to the concept of sampling as a method of …

Students are introduced to the concept of sampling as a method of determining characteristics of a population. They consider how a sample can be random or biased, and think of methods for randomly sampling a population to ensure that it is representative.The idea of sampling is connected to probability; a relatively small set of data (a random sample/number of trials) can be used to generalize about a population (or determine probability). A larger sample (more trials) will give more confidence in the conclusions, but how large of a sample is needed?Students also discuss what random means and how to generate a random sample. Random samples are compared to biased samples and give insight into how statistics can be misleading (intentionally or otherwise).Key ConceptsRandom samples are related to probability. In probability, the number of trials is a sample used to generalize about the probability of an event. The results in probability are random if we are looking at equally likely outcomes. If a data sample is not random, the conclusions about the population will not reflect it.Terminology introduced in this lesson:population: the entire set of objects that can be considered when asking a statistical questionsample: a subset of a population; can be random, where each object in the population is equally likely to be in the sample, or biased, where not every object in the population is equally likely to be in the sampleGoals and Learning ObjectivesIntroduce sampling as a method to generalize about a population.Discuss the concept of a random sample versus a biased sample.Determine methods to generate random samples.Understand that biased samples are sometimes used to mislead.SWD: Some students with disabilities will benefit from a preview of the goals in this lesson. Students can highlight the critical features and/or concepts and will help them to pay close attention to salient information.

Students critique and improve their work on the Self Check, then work …

Students critique and improve their work on the Self Check, then work on additional problems.Key ConceptsStudents apply what they have learned to date to solve the problems in this lesson.Goals and Learning ObjectivesApply knowledge of probability to solve problems.Determine theoretical probability.Predict expected results.

Students critique and improve their work on the Self Check, then work …

Students critique and improve their work on the Self Check, then work on additional problems. Students revise the Self Check problem from the previous lesson and discuss their strategies.Key ConceptsStudents apply what they have learned to date to solve the problems in this lesson.Goals and Learning ObjectivesApply knowledge of sampling and data analysis to solve problems.Determine a random, representative sample that is nonbiased and of adequate sample size.Generalize about a population based on sampling.Compare data sets.

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