Students determine how far a brother and sister travel before they catch …

Students determine how far a brother and sister travel before they catch up with one another. The mathematics task is intended to be a problem or question that encourages the use of mathematical practices. The dialogue is meant to show how students might engage in the mathematical practices as they work on the task.

Rate Type of Unit: Concept Prior Knowledge Students should be able to: …

Rate

Type of Unit: Concept

Prior Knowledge

Students should be able to:

Solve problems involving all four operations with rational numbers. Understand quantity as a number used with a unit of measurement. Solve problems involving quantities such as distances, intervals of time, liquid volumes, masses of objects, and money, and with the units of measurement for these quantities. Understand that a ratio is a comparison of two quantities. Write ratios for problem situations. Make and interpret tables, graphs, and diagrams. Write and solve equations to represent problem situations.

Lesson Flow

In this unit, students will explore the concept of rate in a variety of contexts: beats per minute, unit prices, fuel efficiency of a car, population density, speed, and conversion factors. Students will write and refine their own definition for rate and then use it to recognize rates in different situations. Students will learn that every rate is paired with an inverse rate that is a measure of the same relationship. Students will figure out the logic of how units are used with rates. Then students will represent quantitative relationships involving rates, using tables, graphs, double number lines, and formulas, and they will see how to create one such representation when given another.

In this lesson, students define rate. After coming up with a preliminary …

In this lesson, students define rate. After coming up with a preliminary definition on their own, students identify situations that describe rates and situations that do not.Students determine what is common among rate situations and then revise their definitions of rate based on these observations. Students present and discuss their work and together create a class definition. They compare the class definition of rate with the Glossary definition and revise the class definition as needed.Key ConceptsA good definition of rate has to be precise, yet general enough to be useful in a variety of situations. For example, the statement “a rate compares two quantities” is true, but it is so general that it is not helpful. The statement “speed is a rate” is true, but it is not useful in determining whether unit price or population density are rates.A good definition of rate needs to state that a rate is a single quantity, expressed with a unit of the form A per B, and derived from a comparison by division of two measures of a single situation.Goals and Learning ObjectivesGain a deeper understanding of rate by developing, refining, testing, and then refining again a definition of rate.Use a definition of rate to determine the kinds of situations that are rate situations and to recognize rates in new and different situations.Understand the importance of precision in communicating mathematical concepts.

Gallery OverviewAllow students who have a clear understanding of the content thus …

Gallery OverviewAllow students who have a clear understanding of the content thus far in the unit to work on Gallery problems of their choosing. You can then use this time to provide additional help to students who need review of the unit's concepts or to assist students who may have fallen behind on work.Gallery DescriptionsCreate Your Own RateStudents create their own rate problems, given three quantities that must all be used in the problems or the answers.Paper Clip ChallengeStudents think about rate in the context of setting a record for making a paperclip chain.The Speed of Light Students must determine the speed of light so they can figure out how long it will take a light beam from Earth to reach the Moon (assuming it would make it there). They conduct research and perform calculations.Tire WeightStudents connect area and a rate they may not be familiar with, tire pressure, to indirectly weigh a car. They find and add areas and do a simple rate calculation. Please note this problem requires adult supervision for the process of measuring the car tires. If no adult supervision is available, you can provide students with measurements to work with inside the classroom. Do not allow students to work with a car without permission from the owner and adult supervision.Planting Wildflowers Students apply area and length concepts (square miles, acres, and feet) to rectangles, choose and carry out appropriate area conversions, and show each step of their solutions. While specific solution paths will vary, all students who show good conceptualization will make at least one area conversion and show understanding about area even when dimensions and units change. This task allows several different correct solution paths.Train Track Students use information about laying railroad ties for the Union Pacific Railroad. These rates are different from those used elsewhere in the unit, asking how many rails per gang of workers, how long it takes to lay one mile of track, and how many spikes are needed for a mile of track.HeartbeatsStudents will investigate and compare the heartbeats of different animals and their own heartbeat.FoghornStudents use the relationships among seconds, minutes, and hours to find equivalent rates. Each step requires students to express an equivalent rate in terms of these different units of time. In any strong response, students use conversion factors and the given rate to find equivalent rates.

In this lesson, students use their knowledge of rates, graphs of rates, …

In this lesson, students use their knowledge of rates, graphs of rates, and formulas to solve problems.Key ConceptsThe formula for a rate is a mathematical way of writing a rule for computing a value. Rate formulas describe a constant relationship between two quantities. Each point on the graph of a rate shows a pair of related values. A graph of a constant rate is a straight line.Goals for Learning ObjectivesUncover any partial understandings and misconceptions students have about rate, graphs of rates, and formulas.Develop a more robust understanding of rate.Help identify which Gallery problems students should work on.

In this lesson, students first watch three racers racing against each other. …

In this lesson, students first watch three racers racing against each other. The race is shown on a track and represented on a graph. Students then change the speed, distance, and time to create a race with different results. They graph the new race and compare their graph to the original race graph.Key ConceptsA rate situation can be represented by a graph. Each point on a graph represents a pair of values. In today's situation, each point represents an amount of time and the distance a racer traveled in that amount of time. Time is usually plotted on the horizontal axis. The farther right a point is from the origin, the more time has passed from the start. Distance is usually plotted on the vertical axis. The higher up a point is from the origin, the farther the snail has traveled from the start. A graph of a constant speed is a straight line. Steeper lines show faster speeds.Goals and Learning ObjectivesUnderstand that a graph can be a visual representation of an actual rate situation.Plot pairs of related values on a graph.Use graphs to develop an understanding of rates.

In this lesson, students watch a video of a runner and express …

In this lesson, students watch a video of a runner and express his speed as a rate in meters per second. Students then use the rate to determine how long it takes the runner to go any distance.Key ConceptsSpeed is a rate that is expressed as distance traveled per unit of time. Miles per hour, laps per minute, and meters per second are all examples of units for speed. The measures of speed, distance, and time are all related. The relationship can be expressed in three ways: d = rt, r = dt, t = dr.Goals and Learning ObjectivesExplore speed as a rate that measures the relationship between two aspects of a situation: distance and time.In comparing distance, speed, and time, understand how to use any two of these measures to find the third measure.

Students use their knowledge of rates to solve problems.Key ConceptsGiven any two …

Students use their knowledge of rates to solve problems.Key ConceptsGiven any two values in a rate situation, you can find the third value.These three equations are equivalent, and they all describe rate relationships:y = rx, r = yx, x = yrAt the beginning of this lesson (or for homework), students will revise their work on the pre-assessment Self Check. Their revised work will provide data that you and your students can use to reassess students' understanding of rate. You can use this information to clear up any remaining misconceptions and to help students integrate their learning from the past several days into a deeper and more coherent whole.The work students do in this lesson and in revising their pre-assessments will help you and your students decide how to help them during the Gallery. In this lesson, students will reveal the depth and clarity of their understanding of rate.Students whose understanding of rate is still delicate should get extra help during the Gallery.Students who feel that they have a robust understanding of rate may choose from any of the problem-solving or deeper mathematics problems in the Gallery.Goals and Learning ObjectivesUncover any partial understandings and misconceptions about rate.Develop a more robust understanding of rate.Identify which Gallery problems to work on.

Getting Started Type of Unit: Introduction Prior Knowledge Students should be able …

Getting Started

Type of Unit: Introduction

Prior Knowledge

Students should be able to:

Understand ratio concepts and use ratios. Use ratio and rate reasoning to solve real-world problems. Identify and use the multiplication property of equality.

Lesson Flow

This unit introduces students to the routines that build a successful classroom math community, and it introduces the basic features of the digital course that students will use throughout the year.

An introductory card sort activity matches students with their partner for the week. Then over the course of the week, students learn about the routines of Opening, Work Time, Ways of Thinking, Apply the Learning (some lessons), Summary of the Math, Reflection, and Exercises. Students learn how to present their work to the class, the importance of students’ taking responsibility for their own learning, and how to effectively participate in the classroom math community.

Students then work on Gallery problems, to further explore the resources and tools and to learn how to organize their work.

The mathematical work of the unit focuses on ratios and rates, including card sort activities in which students identify equivalent ratios and match different representations of an equivalent ratio. Students use the multiplication property of equality to justify solutions to real-world ratio problems.

In this design challenge, students will harness the power of the sun …

In this design challenge, students will harness the power of the sun to design, construct and evaluate a solar-powered model car of their creation. Students will utilize the design process and select an optimal gear ratio and components for their car.

Students experientially learn about the characteristics of a simple physics phenomenon the …

Students experientially learn about the characteristics of a simple physics phenomenon the pendulum by riding on playground swings. They use pendulum terms and a timer to experiment with swing variables. They extend their knowledge by following the steps of the engineering design process to design timekeeping devices powered by human swinging.

This classroom activity helps students understand how the angle of the Sun …

This classroom activity helps students understand how the angle of the Sun affects temperatures around the globe. After experimenting with a heat lamp and thermometers at differing angles, students apply what they learned to explain temperature variations on Earth. The printable six-page handout includes a series of inquiry-based questions to get students thinking about what they already know about temperature patterns, detailed experiment directions and a worksheet that helps students use the experiment results to gain a deeper understanding of seasonal temperature changes and why Antarctica is always so cold.

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